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[转载] 你知道英文中每个月份的名称有何来历? [删除]
2016-07-04 17:48:33 | 分类: 默认分类

January 一月

  January is named after the Roman god Janus, who presided over doors and beginnings – appropriately enough, for the beginning of the year (though this is, as you will discover, not as straightforward as it seems). Indeed, Janus was usually depicted with two faces looking backwards and forwards, as is often characteristic of a new year; this also gave rise to the term Janus word for words that have two opposite meanings.

  January是以罗马神话中双面神杰纳斯(Janus)的名字命名的。他负责司守门户以及万物的始末—作为一年的开始,他很适合(尽管你会发现,其实并没有那么直观)。事实上,杰纳斯通常以双面孔示人,一面回顾过去,一面注视未来,而这经常被视为新的一年的特征;这也使得它的引申词组“Janus word”(双面词)表示兼有两种相反含义的词。

February 二月

  February is ultimately based on Latin februarius, from februa. In case that’s not helped things become clearer, februa was the name of a purification feast held on the 15th of this month. February is a divisive issue in modern pronunciation, with both Feb-yoo-ary and Feb-roo-ary being commonly heard.


March 三月

  Which god gets a planet and a month named after him? You’ve guessed it: Mars. Why him? As the Oxford English Dictionary notes, ‘In ancient Rome several festivals of Mars took place in March, presumably in preparation for the campaigning season, since Mars was a god of war.’


April 四月

  We know that the English word April comes from the Latin Aprillis, the fourth month of the ancient Roman calendar, but things are less clear after that. In Old English, April was also sometimes called Eastermonab, ‘Easter month’.


May 五月

  The month is connected with the goddess Maia. Perhaps less well known now than the other deities with months named after them, Maia (in Greek mythology) was daughter of Atlas and mother of Hermes. She was considered a nurturer and an earth goddess, which may explain the connection with this springtime month. Although may is a common modal verb, the month and the word are unrelated.

  这个月与玛雅女神(the goddess Maia)有关。与其他神相比,也许玛雅并没有那么为人们所熟知,在希腊神话中,她是阿特拉(Atlas)之女,同时也是赫尔墨斯(Hermes)之母。她被誉为养育者和大地女神,这或许可以解释为什么它是属于春季的月份。尽管“may”经常被用作情态动词,但它与五月并没有关系。

June 六月

  Having conceded one month to a Greek deity, we’re now back with the Romans: June is named after the ancient Roman goddess Juno, wife of Jupiter and goddess of marriage and childbirth. June was also once sometimes known as midsummer month.


July 七月

  The first month in the calendar named after a real person, July was named in honour of Julius Caesar after his death in 44 BC, July being the month of his birth. Before it was renamed, the month was known as Quintilis (borrowed into English as Quintile), which means ‘fifth’. If you’ve been counting, you’ll know that July isn’t the fifth month: we’ll come on to that when we reach September and October.

  July是日历中第一个以真实的人物命名的月份,七月的命名是为了纪念尤里乌斯 凯撒(Julius Caesar)。公元前44年,凯撒大帝去世,七月是他出生的月份。在更名之前,这个月叫做“Quintilis”(英语则为“Quintile”),意为“第五”。如果你数过了的话,你会发现七月并不是第五个月:这一点在说到九月和十月的时候我们会做出解释。

August 八月

  Following suit, in 8 BC, the month Sextilis (‘sixth’) was renamed after Augustus, the first Roman emperor, who had died six years earlier. Augustus himself was given this title when he became emperor, having previously been known as Octavian. It came from the Latin augustus meaning ‘consecrated, venerable’ which gave rise to the English adjective august, ‘respected and impressive’.

  同样地,在公元前8年,“Sextilis” (‘sixth’)这个月以古罗马第一位帝王奥古斯都(Augustus)来命名,他本人早于六年前去世。奥古斯都是他在成为帝王之时为自己改的名字,在这之前,他叫奥克塔维安(Octavian)。这个词来源于拉丁语“augustus”,意为“神圣的、值得尊敬的”,由此,august在做形容词时有“值得尊敬的”的意思。

September 九月

  September follows on from Quinitlis and Sextilis, in that it comes from the Latin septem, ‘seven’. As with those (and the rest of the calendar), the numbering is a bit off now: September was originally the seventh month in an ancient Roman ten-month calendar, which started with March.


October 十月

  More of the same: octo is the Latin for ‘eight’, for that ten month calendar. Two months were added to the end of the calendar year around 713 BC, and the beginning of the year was moved to 1 January in 153 BC.


November 十一月

  The pattern continues: November comes from novem, ‘nine’. November is also, we’re afraid, used ‘with allusion to November’s position at the end of the year, and to the characteristic greyness, gloominess, etc., associated with it in the northern hemisphere’. The earliest known example of this allusive use comes from Jane Austen’s posthumously published novel Persuasion.

  还是相同的规律:“November”来源于拉丁语“novem”,即第九个月。我们认为“Novembe”同样也“暗指其处于年末,用以表示灰暗、阴郁等,与北半球相关”。这种暗指性的用法最早见于简-奥斯汀(Jane Austen)去世后出版的《劝导》(Persuasion)一书中。

December 十二月

  And we finish off the year with December, from decem, ‘ten’. The month also comes with a brace of adjectives: Decemberish and Decemberly, the latter of which can also be used as an adverb. And there you have it: a whole calendar year of etymologies to see you through the whole of 2016.


(英文来源:Oxford Dictionary blog)

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